Development of iron ore
автор: Олег Хоменко
The land on which there is a modern Krivoy Rog, was inhabited in ancient times. This was evidenced by a real flint sharply-pointed one find near the village Kudashevka, which can be attributed to the Mousterian period. Directly in the city limits showed signs of parking of late Paleolithic time (Kowalski and Oak beams). In the early Bronze Age Kryvorizhzhya inhabited by various tribes of nomads, including enough highly developed Catacomb culture (XX–XVII century BC). In the late Bronze Age (XIV–VIII century BC) there manufacture casting molds from local types of stone, which are widespread throughout the northern Black Sea coast. Numerous finds of such forms and nozzles indirectly support the idea that this region is already at that time was the center of ancient metallurgy. Nomadic Scythians lived in Kryvorizhzhya in the early Iron Age. They were in contact with the centers of the ancient world, which affected the overall level of the tribes inhabiting eastern Europe. Scythians melted ore and from the received metal produced the weapon. The spectral analysis of iron from Scythian burial of V–VI centuries BC has shown that raw materials local. Since III century BC and till III century AD the territory of Krivorozhja was occupied with Sarmatian tribes, in particular Yazygi. In II–V centuries AD there lived a settled agricultural tribes of Chernyakhivska culture. During an epoch of the early Middle Ages Krivorozhe was a place various nomads Turkic tribes: Pechenegs, Turks, Polovtsy, and from the XIII to the XVI centuries – the Crimean Tatars. Since the end of XVI and prior to the beginning of a XVIII-th century the local land belonged to the Zaporozhye army, and from 1711 to 1734 – Ottoman empire.
From immemorial time, were famous craftsmen who received iron how cold blast. This is evidenced by findings of VII IV centuries BC. The main feature of ancient metallurgy was application so-called how cold blast, where not warmed-up air injected into the furnaces. The temperature which was reached in such furnaces, didn't allow to melt iron, therefore it was restored in doughy mass. This required a lower temperature to 900 ºC , while to melt the rocks contained in the ore, the temperature must reach 1539 º C. In ancient furnaces temperature reaches 1200-1300 ºC. Required melting point of iron ancient professionals could not reach. This did not allow construction of ancient furnaces, which were small and primitive and constructed primarily of clay. In these furnaces could successfully recover only the ore, which is well melted, that is, brown iron ores - limonite. These ores mostly poor and are acidic, contain water oxides of iron, which are easily reduced to how cold blast furnaces. Another positive feature of these ores is their close proximity of the earth's surface. By the end of the XVII century bog iron ore reserves, common in the Krivoy Rog region lying everywhere and almost at the surface, were worked out. In a XVIII-th century new large deposits of iron ore of Krivorozhja have been opened.
The first attempts to explore the mineral wealth of Kryvorizhzhya thoroughly belong to the second half of XVIII century. It is known that the entrails of the Southern Ukraine was seriously interested the great Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov. To study the natural resources of the edge, Russian Academy of Sciences sent the several expeditions. Detailed description of Krivorozhsky basin gave Academician V.F. Zuev. The report stated: «It's all stone, like river Saksagan, and consists of an iron slate, which is so hard that steel gives off sparks themselves ... makes you think there are any in the local hills of something precious metals...» Personal contribution to the study of the Krivorozhsky basin and the establishment of mining of iron ore made famous Russian scientists, A.N. Pol and O.I. Puzino. Industrial exploitation of mineral resources of Kryvorizhzhya, though primitive pit method, started in 1881 with the opening of Saksaganskogo mine (now Rudoupravlenie Dzerzhinsky). Kryvbas embraced the «iron rush» soon. From many provinces of Imperial Russia to beg for meager wages gushed hapless folk here. Town of Krivoy Rog, according to V. Lenin, has become a big market for agricultural employment and mining. Rapid development of the basin contributed to the discovery in 1884 by Catherine the railway connecting into a single economic unit Dnieper and Donets Basin. Following the «Society of Krivoy Rog iron ore», which was founded AN Field for commercial development of mineral resources to mineral resources Kryvorizhzhya in the late XIX and especially in the first decade of the XX century began to work large syndicates «Prodarud», «Prodamet» and «Produgol». Most of their shares owned by foreign capital.
The highest level of iron ore in Kryvorizhzhya in pre-revolutionary period was achieved in 1913 – 6,35 million tonnes, or about 70% of Russian production. In the 90's here is a new branch of industry – iron and steel. «Society of Krivoy Rog iron ore», wich built ironworks in the village Gdantsevka, which in 1892–1898 years the famous Russian blast furnace M.K. Kurako worked. During the industrial boom that has engulfed Krivoy Rog, class poles were sharply designated. While both Russian and foreign capitalists enriched themselves fabulously over-exploitation of mineral resources of Krivoy Rog and alien peasants. The last languished in hopeless poverty and injustice. Working and living conditions of miners Kryvorizhzhya were appalling. Instruments were butt, and a pick shovel. Worked as the convicts, without rest for 12–14 hours/day. Received a pittance, but plenty of dust ingested iron. For this reason it is often difficult and painful. Miners and their families are living in earthen huts. During the rains the ceiling was leaking. Long tables dug into the ground stretched along the barracks. On both sides along the walls were wooden bunks, often not planed boards on which were piled up heaps of dirty, wet rags: clothing, blankets, in-line and sacks stuffed with straw worn. They prepared food, washed, dried, wet clothes, binding’s foot and clothes in the barracks too. There were 26 primary schools of various departmental, school, two private, commercial and agricultural schools in Krivoy Rog in 1913. However, workers and their children in absolute majority had no access to knowledge. Since the end of the XIX century revolutionary movement in Kryvorizhzhya reached so high that seriously disturbed the tsarist government. Basin came under special surveillance of the police authorities. In the long list of localities where V.I. Lenin prohibited entry after the link, was Krivoy Rog.
Today in the Krivoy Rog basin are enterprises about 90 of various branches of ferrous metallurgy. Of the 10 major manufacturing countries that belong to the mining and processing iron ore, 7 of them are located in the Krivoy Rog region. It provides more than 93% of needs of metallurgical enterprises of Ukraine. Only in Krivoy Rog annually produces more than 8 billion tons of iron ore. Industrial Krivoy Rog iron ore basin contains 16 billion tons is both rich and poor ore. Rich ore can be used without enrichment in metallurgy. Industrial reserves of rich ores account for more than 43% of total proven reserves of the basin. Extraction of over 40% of the total. Today, operating more than 90% of the reserves of rich ore and more than 50% of the poor. The content of iron-rich ore on the average 57.6%. However, the development only of the rich iron ore does not provide the full needs of the industry, so is developing low-grade ores – ferruginous quartzite. These ores are easily enriched. The enrichment is carried out on five ore mining and processing mills: Southern, New Krivoy Rog, Central, Northern and Ingulets. The largest among them is the company of «South mine».
The richness of underground reserves south-east of Ukraine will ensure uninterrupted operation of the local mines for another 100 years. The most optimistic scientific estimates, Ukraine shared the proven iron ore reserves are 32.5 million tons of which the share of industrial stocks account for about 28 billion tons, however, according to experts, the amount of actual reserves of about 16 million tons in 2001 Ukrainian geologists have reduced this figure to 12 billion tons of comparison, in the Krivoy Rog iron ore basin for 130 years during the industrial development of recovered more than 2 million tons of minerals. In Ukraine there are more than 80 fields, of which 70% of proven reserves and 80% harvested in fall of Krivoy Rog iron ore basin. Its geological extension to the north is the Kremenchug iron ore district. Together with ore areas of Zaporozhye, Kirovograd and Poltava region, Krivoy Rog iron ore basin is a large province – Big Krivoy Rog.