автор: Олег Хоменко
Foundation of manganese associated with the development of steel industry in the south. In the works of researchers Krivbass Feodos'ev G. and S. Kontkevicha a message of nested occurrence of manganese in the river valley Ingulets. Geologists have made an assumption about the presence in the region of larger fields. In 1882, to create a geological map of Russia to the Mining Department was organized by the Geological Committee. Junior Geologist, V.A. Domger summer 1883 comes to south Ekaterinoslav province to complete the research. In the Salt River Valley, he finds the manganese ore deposits, as does the message («Proceedings of the Geological Committee», Saint-Petersburg, 1884, v. 33, p. 183).
So in the Dnieper opened the world's largest manganese Ore pool. In the spring of 1885 exploration of manganese ore led A. Michalski, and then professor Petersburg Mining Institute, M.D. Kontsovsky. In the Central State Historical Archives, the fund Court Office of Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolayevich preserved contract drawn up with the Miners Kontsovski, general manager of Grand Duke Malinga farmstead, December 14, 1885 This document states: «I Kontsovsky, I will go on this date in Hrushevsky His Majesty farmstead Ekaterinoslav province to open work for the extraction of manganese ore, which provides prepare now to 100 thousand pounds». In a report from an engineer Kontsovskogo March 22, 1889 regarding the increase and reduce the cost of production of manganese is a table of development Pokrovsky Kopal, launched in 1886 The above indicates the beginning of development at the Nikopol manganese deposit, which is rightly called the pearl of our country. Starting this year, and begins the «chronology» of the existence of mine. We find the same manganese ore in the region a little earlier in the 80s. XIX century. In autumn 1880, a resident of the village of Gorodische (now the village is part of Manganese), digging a well on Zakamyanke found black earth, which is then transported to Kamyanskoe (Dneprodzerzhinsk). Here in the South-Russian Dnieper Metallurgical Plant was made chemical analysis of the findings.
In a short time in The Gorodische arrived representatives. They toured the area and began negotiations with the rural gatherings of the receipt of rent Zakamensk slopes of the river Tomakivka. These findings manganese deposits are interested owners of metallurgical plants. Already in 1886 near Salt River, that is, in the western part of the field, built the first pit mining of manganese ore. Five years later, in 1891, built the first primitive mine with the factory for the wet ore and in the eastern part – Gorodischansky mine South-Russian Dnepr Metallurgical Society. Five years later began to mine ore mine in the village Krasnogrigorevka «pyrolusite». The discovery of manganese ore in this area was of great importance for the rapid development of steel industry in the south. On the rapid increase in ore headline figures suggest. In 1896, total production of manganese across the globe was only 500 thousand tons, of them: USA – 10,1; Chile and Colombia – 20; Cuba – 22; Germany – 21; France –30,4; Japan – 16; India – 15,8; Turkey – 15; Hungary – 12,5; Sweden – 3; Russia – 24,2. Obviously, Russia ranked first among other countries in the world to supply manganese metal industry was a monopoly in the international market. Starting from 1906 to 1910, exports increased and has made not less than 50%.
The discovery of manganese deposits near the steel mills and the Dnieper Donets Basin combined with favorable location and design has become a significant factor in the development, as the pool, and iron and steel industry as a whole. Intensive development of the basin began in the 30s. XX century. Reconstructed the old mines were put into operation a new, rapidly introduce advanced equipment and technology. The exploitation of mines increased and workers' settlements: Gorodische, Zakamyanka, Novoselovka, Nikolaevka and several others. October 22, 1938 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, these settlements were merged into the city Manganese, which began to grow rapidly, increasing the network of cultural and social institutions.
In addition to the main Ukraine Nikopol basin, which includes Nikopol, Velikotokmaksky Ingul and manganese-Dnieper area, known as early Pobuzhsky, Donetsk and Carpathian. Explored and exploited only deposit at Nikopol district. The ore beds lie at a depth of 15–120 m and their average thickness of 2 m. The main reserves of high quality ore with an average of 27% manganese. The level of exploration and development of the Nikopol basin high. It worked 9 fields are 6 and 8 mines and quarries. The deposits of the western section of the basin are developed by enterprises, «Ordzhonikidze Mining», and the east – JSC «Marganetsk mine».
The introduction of flow technology of underground mining in the mines of public company «Marganetsk Mining Plant» was preceded by a union mine number 4 and 7, № 3 and 5. It is allowed to concentrate mining and coal mines to increase production capacity more than doubled. Also, a field of mines number 9, 10, 13, 14 and 15 were merged into two large mine field number 9/10 and № 14/15 with a projected production capacity of 2,2 million tonnes of ore per year. An autopsy carried out joint mine fields sloping trunks. This provided a continuous conveyor transport ore from the production faces before loading on the ground in a railway dump cars.