автор: Олег Хоменко
Wealth of underground reserves south-east of Ukraine will ensure uninterrupted operation of the local mines for another 100 years. The most optimistic scientific estimates, Ukraine shared the proven iron ore reserves are 32.5 billion tons of them a share of industrial stocks account for about 28 billion tons .However, according to experts, the amount of actual reserves of about 16 billion tons in 2001, Ukrainian geologists have reduced this figure to 12 billion tons of comparison, in Krivoy Rog iron ore basin of the 130-year industrial development recovered more than 2 billion tons of minerals. In Ukraine there are more than 80 fields, of which 70% of proven reserves and 80% harvested in the fall of Krivoy Rog iron ore basin. Its geological extension to the north is Kremenchug iron ore district. Together with the ore regions Zaporozhye, Kirovograd and Poltava oblasts of Krivoy Rog iron ore basin is a large province – Big Krivoy Rog. The mining industry produced the whole range of iron ore: iron ore lump and fine, iron ore, pellets and sinter. Production capacity at the disposal of mining enterprises of Ukraine, can not only provide the raw domestic metallurgical plants, but also to export up to 60% of domestic iron ore, which is about 23 million tones
Significant place in the Ukrainian industry has Belozersky iron ore district, which includes North Belozersk, South Belozersky and Pereverzevskoe iron ore deposits. This group of fields located in the southern part of the Basil and Veselovsky areas of Zaporozhye region. Deposits are located 75 km from the city of Zaporizhia and 25 km from the city Dneprorudnoe. Iron ore area stretches into submeridialnom direction at 40 km from Kakhovskogo reservoir in the north to the village Veseloe in the south. South Belozersk Belozersky iron ore mine in the area occupies the central part, representing a rock band width of 150–250 m sublatitudinal length of 2,6 km. Of the three mineral types of ore deposits of South-Belozersky predominant widely dispersed hematite and martite ore. Almost 60% of deposits are rich ores, which contain more than 60% iron, and do not require enrichment. Development of these stocks produces Public Company «Krivorozhskiy ore-mine combine». Explored reserves of only one of the South White Lake deposit are approximately 300 million tons.
The uranium industry in Ukraine is based on the largest reserves of uranium ore, concentrated mainly within the Kirovograd region. In Ukraine there are several genetic types of uranium deposits. About 76% of all deposits represent deposits albititovogo type, 11% belong to the pegmatitic deposits, 7% – to the sandstone and the remaining 6% represent a conglomerate deposits, tar, and other types. Industrial importance at the moment have only field albititovogo type – sodium-uranium deposits and sandstone-type – hydrogenic.
Industrial metasomatic type uranium deposits are concentrated within Kirovohrad metallogenic area, which is part of the province of the Ukrainian crystalline shield. By total reserves of uranium Ukraine is among the top ten countries in the world. The overwhelming majority of reserves explored up to high categories of scrutiny that defines their high readiness for commercial development. Only proved reserves are able to provide more than 100-year demand of Ukrainian NPPs in natural uranium.
Significant prognostic resources are concentrated in the traditional uranium deposits are located in albitites Ukrainian crystalline shield. In general, Ukraine occupies a worthy place in the top ten countries in the field of nuclear energy and the № of generated electricity, and its specific weight, and quantity produced by natural uranium.
The world's largest reserves of manganese ore Nikopol manganese ore basin is of great economic importance, since metallurgical industry to produce high quality steels requires manganese ferroalloys. On how to develop a manganese basin formation is divided into two parts: east, where there are more than 40% of the reserves being developed primarily by underground coal mines of РС «Marganets мining combine» and west – open to quarries of «Ordzhonikidze мining combine ». In terms of the use of manganese ore in Ukraine is the second largest ferrous metals. Most of them, which amounts to 95–97%, comes in black and nonferrous metallurgy. A small portion of manganese ores are used in chemical industry, ceramic and glass industries. Their reserves are about 2 billion tons.